Like all civically engaged parents, gay fathers support their local museums and libraries and enroll their kids in camps and extracurricular activities. They sometimes do additional volunteer work for social justice groups. The largest-scale survey to date was conducted in by the Gay Lesbian Straight Education Network, an organization focused on the safety of LGBT students in schools. That study, which included LGBT parents, suggested that gay fathers could be more likely to be involved in school-based activities than heterosexual dads. My current study, indicates the same.
Many of the men taking part have told me that being actively involved helps them preemptively counteract potential negative encounters with school personnel and other families. Gay dads prefer schools and communities that are safe and inclusive. Beyond that, they want judges like Nance and lawmakers bent on barring them from fatherhood to see that two-dad families are for the most part just like any other family. Post-Castro Cuba and the cult of personality — Egham, Surrey.
Religious accommodation on both sides of the pond: Different paths to a common norm? Front-end planning of capital projects: Available editions United Kingdom.
The number of men married to each other who have children is rising following legal rulings about marriage equality. Andrew Leland , Rutgers University. Hardly a day goes by without straight men debating what it means to be a man now that women are becoming more powerful and male privilege is being eroded. Over the past fortnight, some have even whined about the widespread outrage ignited by women who have been sexually exploited finally taking a stand against their oppressors.
Well, first of all, they need to get over themselves. But what about gay men and our relationship with our masculinity?
- A new survey shows how tough it is to break gender roles.?
- This sleek new magazine adds a fashion-world spin to solving climate change;
- Parenting roles.
Why are we usually left out of the discussion about what it means to be a man? Because it strikes me that our relationship with our masculinity is much more complicated, intense and potentially troubling. Which is why I commissioned a survey for Attitude magazine about masculinity. At the same time that gay men may be confronting internalized traditional masculine ideals, they may also be confronting some of the consequences of gender oppression that women face.
While there is evidence that heterosexual men also experience body image concerns e. Altogether, traditional masculine ideals may to some degree amplify the adverse effect that some gay men experience when compared to heterosexual men. In other words, gay men may feel pressured to live by the same expectations and restrictions that heterosexual men—whether it be as a defensive reaction or because it genuinely reflects their personality—while simultaneously experiencing some of the adverse effects of misogyny and sexual objectification that heterosexual women feel.
While scientific research continues to reveal how traditional masculinity ideology affects gay men, psychologists should consider how masculine ideals impact their gay male clients. Furthermore, it has been suggested that as a result of traditional masculine gender role socialization, many gay men did not develop the skills necessary to intimately connect with other men e. Consequently, some gay men may use sex as a substitute for intimacy Haldeman, Haldeman also proposed that because many gay men were victimized by heterosexual men for violating traditional masculinity ideology while growing up, some gay men may experience a form of heterophobia—or a fear of interacting with heterosexual men and a degradation of heterosexuality.
Thus, while scientific research tests these and other hypotheses generated by practitioners, psychologists should remain aware of the possible role that masculine ideals and gender role socialization play in the presenting issues and concerns of their gay clients. If masculinity is an important construct for a client, then it may be helpful to explore how this may be affecting his psychological well-being.
For instance, Pleck proposed that one source of masculine gender role strain is rooted in the perception that one is failing to fulfill some internalized notion of masculinity. Traditional masculinity ideology excludes gay men because they violate fundamental criteria for being masculine: Yet, even if a gay man is not concerned with traditional notions of masculinity, he may nevertheless feel the oppressive effects of this dominant ideology. For instance, one proposed component of traditional masculinity ideology is that men should be hypersexual and sexually objectify others Mahalik et al.
Gay men and advertising targeted to gay men have been found to sexually objectify other men Siever, Consequently, gay men who present in a clinical setting with disordered eating or dissatisfaction with their body may have internalized this objectified perspective that is perpetuated by other men and traditional masculine ideals.
This study was exploratory in nature and any conclusions taken from this should be done with caution. Although there are advantages to conducting research over the Internet Gosling et al. While the current sample demographics closely mirror other on-line studies focused on gay men e.
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The use of the Internet may have accessed individuals who would not have presented in-person for an interview; however, participants may not have provided full responses because they had to type their responses. Thus, this may account for some of the individuals who did not respond to particular questions and affected the types of responses. Many intriguing themes arose from this exploratory analysis that warrant further study using different research methods.
Additionally, quantitative methods could be employed to investigate the relationship between many of the variables that emerged in this study. Finally, future research should extend beyond the adverse affects of traditional masculinity and explore what aspects of masculinity are beneficial for gay men and their relationships. In the end, we may never fully understand the degree to which gay men are affected by traditional masculine ideals. However, empirical evidence is beginning to shed light on how gay men enact masculinity and how it does and does not affect them.
As one participant wrote.
My personal feeling is that masculinity, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder; and I refuse to let someone else dictate to me what is and is not masculine. Nevertheless, traditional masculine ideals continue to play a prominent role within the gay community.
Reported Effects of Masculine Ideals on Gay Men
This article offers a hint at some of the ways in which gay men are affected by traditional notions of masculinity in the U. Publisher's Disclaimer: The following manuscript is the final accepted manuscript. It has not been subjected to the final copyediting, fact-checking, and proofreading required for formal publication. It is not the definitive, publisher-authenticated version. The American Psychological Association and its Council of Editors disclaim any responsibility or liabilities for errors or omissions of this manuscript version, any version derived from this manuscript by NIH, or other third parties.
The published version is available at www. Francisco J. Stefanie T. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Psychol Men Masc. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jul Find articles by Francisco J. Find articles by Stefanie T. Find articles by William Ming Liu. Find articles by Eric Vilain.
Even In Same-Sex Couples, The More “Feminine” Partner May Have More Ho
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Abstract This exploratory study used consensual qualitative research methodology Hill et al. Gay Masculinity Ideology Masculinity and femininity are descriptors commonly used in everyday language. The Effect of Masculine Ideals on Men For men, traditional masculine ideals seem to play a significant role in their psychological well-being. Method Participants The participants were men who self-identified as gay. The Questions A set of six open-ended questions was used to elicit responses for this study. Procedures PsychData. Results Table 1 shows the frequency of cases for the categories generated from the six questions.
Table 1 Categories Generated by Questions. Someone that straight people would not immediately assume was gay. This causes low self esteem if people are not comfortable with their looks. There are no positive effect 30 Traditional ideals e. Both men are belittled—neither could possibly be masculine. Open in a separate window. Discussion This exploratory study illustrates what some gay men may believe are commonly accepted descriptors of masculinity and femininity among gay men and how masculine ideals in the U.
Limitations This study was exploratory in nature and any conclusions taken from this should be done with caution. Future Research Many intriguing themes arose from this exploratory analysis that warrant further study using different research methods. Footnotes Publisher's Disclaimer: Contributor Information Francisco J. References Alvear M. Why do sissies want butches? Washington Blade. The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale: Convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity.
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Evidence from the Australian Twin Registry. Childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation: A conceptual analysis and quantitative review. Developmental Psychology. Gay men and effeminate behavior. New York: Harrington Park Press; Sex Roles.